Domination


King George II  
King George II of England
[audio] British Domination Through Trade Laws

The major powers of Europe: Britain, France, and Spain

  • In order to make sure that Britain had more money coming in than going out of the country, Britain passed laws that set limits on business and trade.
  • Mercantilism: the plans a government makes to control businesses that trade with other countries.
  • Mercantilism was important because countries tried to use their worldwide trade to become stronger and richer than other countries.


Trade Laws

  • Trade Laws put limits on imports and exports.
  • Britain's economic problem: They owed more money than they had in the banks.


[audio] The Navigation Acts

  • Britain's Parliament passed a series of laws on trading that helped the British increase their money.
  • Effects of The Navigation Acts:
Country Event Positive Effects Negative Effects
13 Colonies Shipbuilding increased Jobs increased The 13 Colonies didn't earn the profits from trade
Sailors increased Jobs increased

All goods imported or exported from the colonies had to go through Britain first and be taxed. Prices on some goods increased

The colonies could not export natural resources and manufactured products which were already produced in Britain

Britain Taxes on imports and exports Increased revenue Couldn't enforce all the laws, and they couldn't collect all the taxes
  Increased transportation jobs  

 


[audio] Fighting Over Land Claims

The French And Indian Wars

  • Britain and France fought over land where the Native American's lived.
  • Four factors of group success as they apply to the war in the beginning:
Four Factors
Britain France
Capability: weapons, army and navy skills No advantage No advantage
Leadership = government and generals

Government not unified

Generals not well trained to fight in the wilderness

Government well organized

Generals well trained

Resources:
Allies: groups that agree to help each other

Money

Food

Smaller army

 

Spent less money on war

Much food

Larger troops: Spain, Canada, and the Native Americans joined French

Spent more money on war

Lacked food

Motivation No advantage No advantage

 


[audio] Fighting The French And Indian War

  • Later, two of the four factors change in favor of Britain:
Four Factors
Britain France
Capability: weapons, army and navy skills
No advantage
No advantage
Leadership: government and generals

Government not unified

Generals are well trained to fight in the wilderness

Government well organized

Generals well trained

Resources:
Allies: groups that agree to help each other

Money

Food

Bigger army

 

Spent more money on war

Much food

Larger troops: Spain, Canada, and the Native Americans joined French

Spent more money on war

Lacked food

Motivation No advantage No advantage

 


[audio] The French Are Defeated

  • The Treaty of Paris of 1763
  • France lost the French and Indian War to Britain.France's land in North America, the Ohio Valley, became part of Britain's land.
  • Negotiations: when people meet together to work out an agreement


Britain Immediately Fights Another War: Pontiac's War

  • Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa tribe fought back to drive out British settlers and troops in the Ohio Valley.
  • The Proclamation of 1763 Accommodation: Britain agrees to give the Native Americans the Ohio Valley and all land west of the Appalachian Mountains because they can't afford to fight any more.


[audio] Multiple Perspectives Of The Proclamation Of 1763

People Viewpoint
Colonists Didn't like leaving their farms in the Ohio Valley
Colonial Governments Didn't like having less land to control
Native Americans Liked keeping their land and having peace
British Government

Liked saving money by not having to fight.

Liked getting money from the taxes they put on the Ohio Valley's resources.



[audio] British Domination Through Revenue-Generating Laws

  • Problem: After the French and Indian War, Britain had economic problems = owed more money than they had in the banks.
  • Solution : Britain put a new tax on the colonies to help them pay their debts and costs of governing the 13 Colonies.

Revenue-Generating Laws

  • Revenue: money that the government takes
  • Generating: creating or making
  • These Revenue-Generating Laws put taxes on the products when the products were in the 13 Colonies just before the people in the colonies bought them.
  • This was different than the trade laws, which put the taxes on the imports and exports of Britain, while the products were in Britain.

[audio]Revenue-Generating Laws

Tax Laws
Description of Law
Colonist's Reaction
Effect on Britain
Sugar Act Taxes on sugar, wine, and coffee Smuggling: secretly buying and selling goods Doesn't make money
Stamp Act Taxes on paper: books, newspapers, and documents

Colonist's organize saying, "No taxation without representation." It wasn't fair to tax without a vote by the people.

Sons and Daughters of Liberty: a group of people that work together to harass tax collectors.

Boycott: a group of people won't buy goods


Doesn't make money
Townshend Acts Taxes hidden in the cost of goods before they are taken off the ship Didn't fool colonists. Boycott. Law is repealed